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urban deer management facts

  • In a healthy population, female deer can breed as fawns (6-7 months of age) producing young at 1 year of age. Average pregnancy rate of doe fawns in developed areas is 40%.
  • Healthy adult does most often produce 2 fawns annually.
  • Removing deer from a healthy population will NOT increase reproductive rates of the remaining deer. Deer in Pennsylvania breed once a year. Average reproductive rate for adult does in developed areas in Pennsylvania is 1.8 fawns/adult doe with 15% producing 1 fawn, 79% producing twins, and 6% producing triplets. Reproduction in females is already close to maximum.
  • Deer can live up to 18 years of age.
  • Deer populations can double in size every 2-3 years.
  • Deer eat about 5-10 pounds of food daily.
  • Deer home ranges are relatively small in urban areas (100-300 acres).
  • Current birth control practices are costly and ineffective in controlling free-ranging deer populations over a large area.
  • Hunters can assist landowners at no cost.
  • Landowners can impose additional hunting restrictions on their property.
  • Homeowners can waive the 50-yard archery or 150-yard firearm safety zone.
  • Hunting does not increase deer-vehicle accidents. During fall, deer naturally move more due to increased activity associated with breeding season. Investigations have shown deer-vehicle accidents occur more frequently on Sundays when no hunting is allowed than on Saturday (high hunter participation day) and 1-4 hours after dark which is after hunting hours.
  • Landowners who allow the use of their property without a fee are protected from liability.
  • Typically, the removal of 1 adult doe during the hunting season equates to 3 less deer the following spring.
  • All deer management programs require long-term maintenance.