From Under the Deck
If you joined us in 2019, you'll recognize the view. This is the same black bear den site in Northeastern Pennsylvania’s Monroe County. We cannot confirm it is the same female bear, that would be considered unusual, but this one also has ear tags. We've seen TWO little noses so far.
Below, you’ll also find answers to common questions and facts about Pennsylvania black bears.
Live Bear Cam 2021
The Game Commission and
HDOnTap are pleased to bring back this cam from Northeast Pennsylvania.
People should not approach hibernating bears because disturbance can lead to den and cub abandonment. Enjoy! And remember, nature can be difficult to watch.
Why don't we name them?
Black bears are wild creatures and it is important for us to keep them wild. Please refrain from naming the sow and her cubs to respect them as a wild animals.
Do Not Disturb
People should not approach hibernating bears because disturbance can lead to den or possibly cub abandonment. Please respect the privacy of the bears and the landowners, to whom we are extremely grateful for their enthusiastic cooperation in allowing us to share this peek into the lives of black bears.
This is a top-notch camera with audio and infrared illumination (night vision) provided and powered by
HDOnTap. It can be controlled remotely and has the ability to pan, tilt and, zoom.
Where is the bear?
Being under a residential deck is not an unusual denning situation for this region of the state. The sow and cubs are generally not a threat to the residents, nor are the bears affected by the normal human activity around this home. When she leaves with the cubs, she will most likely head out to the large wooded area behind the home where she'll find a place to teach the cubs to climb and search for food.
What is that sound?
The sound of a nursing cub sounds like a purring car that just won't turn over. You might hear a cub bawling. Sows communicate to their cubs with low grunts, huffs and mumbles. You may hear water dripping from snow melt, birds chirping, and the occasional passing of the human residents.
How many cubs are there?
We’ve seen three. Litter sizes range from one to five, with three most frequent in Pennsylvania. Females give birth in the January while in the winter den. Newborns are covered with fine dark hair, through which their pink skin shows. At birth, they are about nine inches long and weigh 10 to 16 ounces. Their eyes open after about six weeks. A female black bear generally raises one litter every two years. In most cases cubs den with their mothers for their first winter. Most females breed for the first time when 2½ years old.
What do we know about this sow?
This adult female has ear tags, which indicates she previously was handled by Game Commission staff. We believe this is not the same sow that denned here in 2019. Viewers have captured some nice images of the numbers on the right ear tag. Our best analysis leads us to believe this sow is now 7 years old. She is estimated to weigh about 225 pounds. She had three cubs with her when she was captured in 2017. Sows typically have cubs every other year, which puts her on the right cycle for cubs this year. If you get a clear shot of one of the ear tags, continue to let us know. Thanks!
While this female black bear found this space under the deck of a residential home a suitable den, winter dens could also be a hollow tree, an excavation resembling a bear-sized groundhog hole, a rock crevice, cavity under large rocks, or in a nest beneath the roots of fallen trees. Bears line their dens with bark, grasses and leaves. Females tend to select more sheltered sites than males. Males den alone, as do pregnant females (they give birth in the den). Females with first-year cubs den with their young. To our knowledge, an adult male has never been documented in a female’s den, not in Pennsylvania research nor any other state’s research. Adult females will, on rare occasion, reunite with their 2-year-old offspring and have cubs at the same time in the den, but never an adult male.
Cramped Quarters and Dormancy
There is limited room under the deck and the sow must lay on her side to nurse. In winter, bears den up and become dormant. They lapse into and out of a deep sleep, from which they may be roused. Body temperature decreases
by 10 to 12 degrees Fahrenheit (from a normal 100 degrees to about 88
degrees), and metabolism slows significantly. Heart rate and
respiration slow down. This helps the bear keep its fat reserves as long as possible. Movement is limited, so as not to expend much energy while in the den. Sows will move
and adjust with the cubs now and then. Males and lone young adults will
occasionally rouse from sleeping and wander on the landscape.
Bears are alert and active during hibernation; but don't leave the den or take in any food or water. They do not urinate or defecate while dormant.
They are getting dripped on!
It is not uncommon for female bears to use dens with less overheard shelter than they have under this deck. Although females with cubs tend to use more sheltered dens, many frequently den in the open with only a few twigs overheard. Cub survival is high in both situations. If a den gets too wet during the spring thaw, the sow may move the cubs to a dryer location nearby.
The Game Commission monitors bear populations statewide by tagging approximately 800 bears each summer, and then watching for the recovery of those tags in the fall harvest. It is impossible to tell the reason for capture without looking up the tag number.
Each county in the primary bear range is assigned a tagging quota so that tags are well-distributed across the state, and Game Commission staff in those counties work toward that quota each summer. Some bears are captured in nuisance situations. Some bears are captured for research purposes and to meet the tagging quota, without any history of being a nuisance.
Tags are made of stainless steel and look silver when first put on a bear, but dull to a brownish tin color as they weather. The tags crimp over the top leading edge of the ear, close to where the ear attaches to the head. Tags are about ½-inch wide and 1½ inches long. A unique number is stamped on each tag, along with the words "PA Game Commission".
In other states, tag color and style or number of tags may signify something, but not in Pennsylvania.
A bear with a tag in each ear could have been captured once or multiple times.
Numbers on the tags are generally 4 or 5 digits long and tags in a bear's ears are typically consecutive. Any bear that is captured, regardless of the situation, receives one of these tags in each ear. Both ears are tagged incase one tag would get lost. Seeing a bear with only one tag means that the other tag has pulled out. If a bear is recaptured with only one tag and a replacement tag is added and the numbers will no longer be consecutive.
Generally, lower numbers are older bears. The warden in this district once recaptured a bear that was 35 years old.
Game Commission biologists only radio-collar bears for research. For example, the Game Commission currently has three active bear research projects using radio-collars. In one study, bears with mange are being collared to study treatment options and survival. In the other study, adult female bears are being collared to monitor reproductive parameters such as age of first reproduction and litter size. In the third study, biologists are investigating harvest vulnerability and want to learn how
likely female bears are to be harvested during hunting season, and what factors affect that
likelihood. If you see a bear with a radio-collar, it means that bear is being monitored to help answer a question considered important to the overall management of Pennsylvania black bears.
What happens when they leave?
The sow will leave with the cubs when they are about three months old (typically by early April in this region). There might be activity just outside the den for a while, but once the sow decides to go, she typically doesn't come back. She'll take the cubs to a wooded area and create a daybed, around which she'll teach them to climb trees and find food. They'll be weaned by about seven months old and by fall should weigh 60-100 pounds. In many cases, cubs den with their mother for their first winter.
Living in Black Bear Country
If you're out at dawn or dusk, or where hearing or visibility is impaired (roar of fast moving water, thick vegetation), reduce your chances of surprising a bear by talking or making noise.
Learn more about what to do if you encounter a bear.
The sow and her single cub departed the den site late on Thursday, April 11. Watch the video below.